Social Items


Fertility control,  couple who are enlightened usually decided on the number of children they want  to have. This depends on the amount of money they have.  The precautionary measures couple take to have the number of children they want to termed fertility control.

Three Method are Available :

1. Contraception
2. Sterilisation
3. Termination of Pregnancy.


1. CONTRACEPTION :- There are various methods of contraception from the primitive to the most modern methods.

A.  Conventional Method

1. AbstiKnence
2. Rhythm of Safe period
3. Billing Method
4. Barrier Method

In abstinence couple refuse to have sex until they desire a baby .

This is the oldest method in practice it is also the method of contraception approved by the Catholic Church.

The Rhythm method,  if there is a safe periood certainly there is danger period.  The danger period is during Ovulation.  Majority of the woman Ovulate on the 14th day of  their cycle . The range  however is from the 12th to the 16th day. Every woman has to find out the day she ovulates so that her danger period will be shorter .

The following sign donate ovulation.

1. A rise temperature occur as soon as woman ovulate

2. The cervical mucus is clear,  copious and can be drawn out in fine thread.

3. Slight abdominal pain. It has been established that the egg lasts for between 24 hours and 36 hours while the sperm can live up to 48 hours. For a woman who ovulate on the 14th day of her cycle  it follows that the egg cannot live till the noon of the 16th day.  It is evident too that if she has sex on the 12th day she will be pregnant since the sperm can live for about 48 hour. To avoid getting pregnant , such a woman must not have sex from the 11th day to 17 day of her cycle.

Barrier method include condom,  cervical cap,  and cervical diaphragm.  They have the advantage of being cheap and readily available : need no prescription and prevent sextually transmitted diseases.  The disadvantage however,  are that.

It can burst, may be error in the production and in the case of condom, can slip off the penis during intercourse.

Intrauterine Contraception Device  (IUCD) :- These are material put directly to sit on the funds of the uterus thereby preventing implantation. IUCD does not prevent fertilization but rather prevent implantation.

Insertion is done immediately after menstruation to ensure she is not pregnant and more so the cervix is open and makes insertion easier.

Types : Two types are commonly used are.

1. Lipped Loop. This is made up of polythene and are radio opaque, it can be left institu in the uterus.

2. Copper T (CU-T). This is made of the metal copper . The metal given it some degree of efficiency. It's life span is three years


(a)  Heavy period and longer duration.

(b)  Increased vaginal discharged

(c)  Increased lendency to pelvic inflammatory disease.

(d) Ectopic pregnant.

Any woman with the following conditions should not use intrauterine contraception device.

1. Suspected pregnancy

2. Past history of ectopic pregnancy

3. Recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease

4. Cancer of the genital tract.

5. Recent abortion less than six months

6. Several dysmenonhoea.

C.  Oral contraceptive:-
 These are tablets that contains the hormones oestrogen and progesterone.  There are various of oral contraceptive pills.  Some are combined, They are taken on daily basis information on their usage is written on each pack. Of important to women of easy virtues is the post coital pill. It is used after an unprotected intercourse. It has to be taken within hours of the intercourse for it to be effective.  Example post coital pill is d-norgestrel.
They either thicken the cervical mucus making it hostile sperm or make the endorneturim artrophic and unreceptive to the fertilized ovum.  The side effects  of contraceptive pill are.

a. Headache and migraines.

b. Breast symptoms such as enlargement mastitis.

c. Thrombo-embolic problems.

d.  Weight gain

e.  Post pill amenonhoea

f.  Bleeding between periods.

e. Skin problems such as acne and rashes.


The use of oral contraceptive pills is contraindicated in the following conditions.

1. Pregnancy
2. Migraine
3. Breast  feeding
4. Psychiatric illness
5. Hearth and liver disease
6. Peptic Ulcer
7. Diabetics and sickle disease
8. Hypertension
9. Oligomenorrhea.


Importance of Fertility Control (See full details )


Fertility control,  couple who are enlightened usually decided on the number of children they want  to have. This depends on the amount of money they have.  The precautionary measures couple take to have the number of children they want to termed fertility control.

Three Method are Available :

1. Contraception
2. Sterilisation
3. Termination of Pregnancy.


1. CONTRACEPTION :- There are various methods of contraception from the primitive to the most modern methods.

A.  Conventional Method

1. AbstiKnence
2. Rhythm of Safe period
3. Billing Method
4. Barrier Method

In abstinence couple refuse to have sex until they desire a baby .

This is the oldest method in practice it is also the method of contraception approved by the Catholic Church.

The Rhythm method,  if there is a safe periood certainly there is danger period.  The danger period is during Ovulation.  Majority of the woman Ovulate on the 14th day of  their cycle . The range  however is from the 12th to the 16th day. Every woman has to find out the day she ovulates so that her danger period will be shorter .

The following sign donate ovulation.

1. A rise temperature occur as soon as woman ovulate

2. The cervical mucus is clear,  copious and can be drawn out in fine thread.

3. Slight abdominal pain. It has been established that the egg lasts for between 24 hours and 36 hours while the sperm can live up to 48 hours. For a woman who ovulate on the 14th day of her cycle  it follows that the egg cannot live till the noon of the 16th day.  It is evident too that if she has sex on the 12th day she will be pregnant since the sperm can live for about 48 hour. To avoid getting pregnant , such a woman must not have sex from the 11th day to 17 day of her cycle.

Barrier method include condom,  cervical cap,  and cervical diaphragm.  They have the advantage of being cheap and readily available : need no prescription and prevent sextually transmitted diseases.  The disadvantage however,  are that.

It can burst, may be error in the production and in the case of condom, can slip off the penis during intercourse.

Intrauterine Contraception Device  (IUCD) :- These are material put directly to sit on the funds of the uterus thereby preventing implantation. IUCD does not prevent fertilization but rather prevent implantation.

Insertion is done immediately after menstruation to ensure she is not pregnant and more so the cervix is open and makes insertion easier.

Types : Two types are commonly used are.

1. Lipped Loop. This is made up of polythene and are radio opaque, it can be left institu in the uterus.

2. Copper T (CU-T). This is made of the metal copper . The metal given it some degree of efficiency. It's life span is three years


(a)  Heavy period and longer duration.

(b)  Increased vaginal discharged

(c)  Increased lendency to pelvic inflammatory disease.

(d) Ectopic pregnant.

Any woman with the following conditions should not use intrauterine contraception device.

1. Suspected pregnancy

2. Past history of ectopic pregnancy

3. Recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease

4. Cancer of the genital tract.

5. Recent abortion less than six months

6. Several dysmenonhoea.

C.  Oral contraceptive:-
 These are tablets that contains the hormones oestrogen and progesterone.  There are various of oral contraceptive pills.  Some are combined, They are taken on daily basis information on their usage is written on each pack. Of important to women of easy virtues is the post coital pill. It is used after an unprotected intercourse. It has to be taken within hours of the intercourse for it to be effective.  Example post coital pill is d-norgestrel.
They either thicken the cervical mucus making it hostile sperm or make the endorneturim artrophic and unreceptive to the fertilized ovum.  The side effects  of contraceptive pill are.

a. Headache and migraines.

b. Breast symptoms such as enlargement mastitis.

c. Thrombo-embolic problems.

d.  Weight gain

e.  Post pill amenonhoea

f.  Bleeding between periods.

e. Skin problems such as acne and rashes.


The use of oral contraceptive pills is contraindicated in the following conditions.

1. Pregnancy
2. Migraine
3. Breast  feeding
4. Psychiatric illness
5. Hearth and liver disease
6. Peptic Ulcer
7. Diabetics and sickle disease
8. Hypertension
9. Oligomenorrhea.


Load Comments